St Werburga was born in Staffordshire in the seventh century, the daughter of King Wulfhere of Mercia and his wife Ermenilda who is likewise deemed a saint. Werburga spent most of her life as a nun and ended her days as Abbess of Ely (like her mother, grandmother and great-aunt before her: the odour one detects is a subtle blend of sanctity and nepotism). Dying c.699 she was initially buried in Hanbury, Staffordshire but owing to the threat of Viking invaders her tomb was moved to Chester Abbey (since 1540 Chester Cathedral), and she remains the patron of that city. The cult of St Werburga was sufficiently strong for churches to be founded in her name elsewhere, not least in Dublin where the original St Werburgh’s was established close to Dublin Castle around 1178.
The first church was burnt down in 1300 and rebuilt. It subsequently underwent many vicissitudes, being rebuilt in 1601 and enlarged sixty years later but remained in use and Jonathan Swift was baptised here in 1667. At the start of the 18th century, Dublin’s then-Anglican Archbishop William King, who was responsible for restoring many of the city’s old churches, decreed that St Werburgh’s should once more be rebuilt. Ireland’s Surveyor General Thomas Burgh, also responsible for the likes of the library at Trinity College and Dr Steevens’ Hospital, was given the job of designing a new church for the site. It is sometimes suggested that Alessandro Gallilei (original architect of Castletown, County Kildare) had a hand in the task and certainly the original facade was distinctly Italianate in character.
That original facade’s octagonal tower crowned with a cupola – seen above – was replaced in 1729 by a square tower with Corinthian pilasters, the whole being finished by a spire in the late 1760s. It rose to a height of 160 feet and must have been a marvellous spectacle. However in the aftermath of Robert Emmet’s abortive rebellion of 1803, the government authorities were suspicious that the spire St Werburgh’s overlooked Dublin Castle’s Upper Yard (as can be seen in James Malton’s 1792 print above) and so arranged for no less than seven architects to declare the structure unsafe. Although another architect, Francis Johnston, offered to secure the spire, it was nevertheless taken down in 1810. Twenty-six years later the tower, and it is presumed the upper section of the facade, was likewise removed. What remains, looking magisterial but decidedly truncated, is a building of three bays faced in sandstone and dominated by towering Doric pilasters, the centrepiece being a powerful segmental-pedimented Doric doorcase. From the exterior St Werburgh’s conveys the impression of a scarred but still noble giant.
In 1754 St Werburgh’s had suffered another grievous fire when the roof of the church fell ‘all at once’ into the main body of the building (with such an unfortunate history of conflagrations, no wonder the entrance porch continues to hold a number of ancient fire-fighting devices). The interior was accordingly rebuilt seemingly as a re-creation of what had been lost. The main body of the church is a long high hall with a simple coved ceiling. The recessed chancel’s upper walls are decorated with paired and tripled Ionic columns on the parapet above which rest a sequence of oversized urns, interspersed with masks and garlands of flowers; the plasterwork was executed by Michael McGuire and Thomas Tierney. The main body of the stone-flagged church is filled with dark stained boxed oak pews, above which runs a gallery with additional seating. In 1767 a wonderful new organ was installed at the west end of the gallery, its elaborate case designed by John Smyth. Immediately in front was the vice-regal ‘box’ rather like that in an old theatre, faced with a large carved and painted panel featuring the royal coat of arms.
In the early 19th century, St Werburgh’s lost not only its spire but also its status as vice-regal church since during this period Francis Johnson was responsible for building the Chapel Royal within the walls of Dublin Castle. Yet ultimately St Werburgh’s gained something from this deprivation since in 1878 it acquired the oak pulpit designed by Johnston and carved by Richard Stewart for the aforementioned Chapel Royal. In high Gothick manner, the octagonal pedestal is reached by a flight of steps with thin traceried balusters and is supported by a single slender column. On a swollen base sits a copy of the bible from which rises a cluster of colonnettes, their capital being composed of heads of the four Evangelists on each of whose heads can be found a copy of his own gospel. The sides of the pedestal are likewise heavily carved and carry sundry royal and religious coats of arms. Quite different in spirit from the rest of the interior, this virtuosic piece of work somehow finds a place within St Werburgh’s.
Despite its association with the vice-regal court, even in the 18th century St Werburgh’s was never a rich parish; by that period, fashion had moved north and east, and Toby Barnard (in his 2003 book A New Anatomy of Ireland) noted that of 114 named pew holders in 1725 a mere five were listed as ‘esquires’ with the majority being grocers, goldsmiths, printers and so forth, explaining why the previous decade the parishioners had been described as ‘mostly shopkeepers and tradesmen.’ There were a few notable incumbents, not least Dr Patrick Delany (subsequently husband of the wondrous Mary Delany) who was rector in 1730. But mostly St Werburgh’s was left to slumber. The advantage to this state of affairs is that, whatever about its exterior, after the 1760s very little was done to alter the inside of St Werburgh’s probably because of shortage of funds. It therefore remains as an admirable example of the 18th century Anglican church, box pews and gallery still in place, even the windows’ clear glass remaining in place. Even better, unlike many other city centre parishes services continue to be held at St Werburgh’s and the building has undergone a certain amount of refurbishment in recent years, without any loss of its distinctive ambience. At the moment the church is open for a certain number of hours each day, and a visit is to be encouraged.
This is one of Dublin’s best kept secrets. i was enthralled when i first discovered it. A must see for the visitor if you can gain access.
Beautiful thank you for sharing
I am a local historian and I appreciate fully the beauty and significance of this divine place
Thank you for your kind comments; I am so pleased you have enjoyed reading this text, and hope you will return to the site often.
I noticed some renovation work being carried out on the building recently, is there any chance it will open to the public ?
It is open to the public at present on several days of the week. Just walk past and you can see the door open…
Thank you for a wonderful piece on the church. This is by far the clearest and most accurate online source for anyone interested in the history and architecture of the building. Nice photos too.
Thank you for your compliment, and I was delighted to write about St Werburgh’s for which I have long had a special affection. As for the pictures, it’s amazing the results that can be achieved with an iPhone…
Sitting in Applewoods Café admiring the architecture of St. Werburgh’s you could certainly convince yourself you were in Rome which is interesting bearing in mind Gallilei was the architect of St. John of Lateran’s. Another link to Castletown is that Lady Louisa’s nephew the patriot Lord Edward Fitzgerald’s remains are in the vault. You have captured her magical spirit very beautifully in your photographs. Thank you.
Thank you for your kind remarks. I had meant to mention Ld Edward FitzGerald, so am delighted you have done so.
Great Photographs Robert iPhone or no iPhone you have composed them very well indeed. Speaking of photographs I have sent the ones I promised you to Eric.
Thank you, most kind. I spoke to Eric a few days ago and look forward to seeing your photographs before too long.
[…] They had a post this week that crossed general interest with genealogy. The post entitled “Simply Divine” is about St. Werburgh’s Church in Dublin. This is of interest to me because in the late 1700s […]
Very nice to read this extremely interesting and informative piece on a truly beautiful hidden treasure in Dublin city. I remember as the first time I walked by St Werburgh’s I immediately thought it looks like a piece of a church in the centre of Rome. Recently I had to pleasure to play the organ in St Werburgh’s and I can witness that it is one of the most interesting and fascinating instruments from that period in Dublin. It is also intriguing for all music lovers to think that the church is thought to have some connections with G.F. Handel and his “The Messiah” whose first public performance took place very close to St Werburgh’s, in a hall in Fishamble Street. I’m not sure if that is fully documented (in fact the present organ was built a few years after Handel’s stay in Dublin) but it’s fascinating anyway.
Thank you for your comments. St Werburgh’s is a very special place, with an atmosphere quite unlike that of other CofI churches in Dublin. I should love to hear the organ being played so you must let it be known when you might next be at the keyboard. However, as you note, the instrument dates from some time after Handel’s visit; I have not heard of any visits he made to the church (prior to its fire in 1754) – where did you learn of this?
I happened to play the organ privately upon request of a friend of mine who’s a professional musician in Italy and has been looking for a few years for a good organ in Ireland from mid-Eighteenth century to do a professional recording. So I kindly got the permission to play the organ and sample the different stops and record them for that friend. He told me about the possible connection of St Werburgh’s with G.F Handel who might have used the church to practice on the (old) organ and do some rehearsal of his Messiah. Honestly I don’t know where he might have got that information from but I found myself that it’s reported in several websites on history of Dublin. Incidentally, he did like the instrument and is now thinking of coming to Dublin in the future to record in St Werburgh’s.
Well of course it is possible, but one would love to know for sure. In any case, it is highly likely that Handel would have known the old, pre-fire St Werburgh’s given how much smaller Dublin would have been at the time. Thank you again for this information, and for your interest.