Dirty Money

In the 1830s, William Drummond Delap of Monasterboice House, County Louth was paid £1,933 by the British government. The reason: he was being compensated for the abolition of slavery in the Caribbean colonies. Mr Delap, it transpires, had owned 96 slaves on two plantations in Jamaica. Slavery there, and on the other islands in the area, had been abolished in 1833, but such was the level of complaint about loss of revenue from former owners, not least those like Mr Delap who lived on the opposite side of the Atlantic, that four years later parliament passed the Slave Compensation Act, resulting in some £20 million being paid out.
Little work has been done in Ireland on the benefits enjoyed during the 17th and 18th centuries by some country house estate owners who were involved in plantations, although twelve years ago History Ireland published a highly informative article by Nini Rodgers on the subject of Irish links to the slave trade (see: https://www.historyireland.com/18th-19th-century-history/the-irish-and-the-atlantic-slave-trade). In England, and indeed in France too, much more research has been undertaken on the matter, not least at University College London’s Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slave-ownership, where archival examination has discovered who were the beneficiaries: it has, for example, documented which country houses owe their existence, in part or whole, to money that came through slavery in the Caribbean. In 2013, the centre created a database of the individuals who were paid compensation when slavery was finally abolished, and it includes some 170 names of people in Ireland, not least William Dunlop Delap. His brother Colonel James Bogle Delap, a friend of George IV, received £4,960. Among the others, some are well-known, such as two members of the banking La Touche family (£6,865 between them) and Howe Peter Browne, second Marquess of Sligo (£5,425). However, by far the largest beneficiary was one Charles McGarel of Larne, County Antrim whose claim for 2,777 slaves on twelve different plantations led to his receiving no less than £135,076. (To explore the documentation relating to Ireland, see: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/search).

William Drummond Delap was a descendant of Hugh Dunlop who around 1600 moved from Ayrshire in Scotland to Sligo where he was involved in the wine trade. His son Robert moved to County Donegal, which is where successive generations of the family lived, their surname becoming corrupted to Delap. Robert Delap, born in 1754, graduated from Trinity College Dublin and was admitted to the Middle Temple before being called to the Irish bar in 1778. Two years before he had married Mary Ann Bogle, daughter of James Bogle of Castlefin, County Donegal. It was Mary Ann’s family, likewise of Scottish origin, which had plantation interests in Jamaica: the UCL Legacies of British Slave-ownership site lists 21 persons of that name. Evidently she acquired a substantial stake in these properties following her marriage: Robert Delap died at sea while returning from the Caribbean in 1782, leaving a widow with several young children including William Drummond who was then barely two years old. In 1805 he married Catherine, eldest daughter of William Foster, Bishop of Clogher and brother of John Foster, last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons. In 1811 John Foster described his niece’s husband as ‘a good man of business resident in London where he acted as a merchant and has a West India property of his own to look after.’ Around 1830 he decided to move to Co Louth, where many of his wife’s family owned land, and there he bought various parcels to create an estate of more than 1,200 acres on which he either built, or more likely enlarged, Monasterboice House. He also laid out elaborate terraced gardens and planted many specimen trees. On a rise south-west of the house he erected a folly, called Drummond Tower after his maternal grandmother who had helped to raise him after his father’s early death. In 1861 he resumed by licence the family’s original surname of Dunlop.

Not much appears to be known about the history of Monasterboice House, now a ruinous building. At its core looks to be a typical late-mediaeval tower house, which as was so often the case has been subject to various structural alterations but is still clearly distinct rising on the northern section of the site. To the south is what appears to be a late 18th/early 19th century residence, of two storeys over basement, three bays with the centre one in the form of a substantial bow. The ground floor of this has glazed doors that once opened onto the terraced gardens and is flanked by Wyatt windows typical of the period. The house’s principal entrance lies on the west side, and was formerly approached by a long avenue. Perhaps to harmonise with the old tower house, this section was gothicised in the Tudoresque manner with arched windows and a large porte-cochere in front of a castellated porch. The back of the house opens to two large yards beyond which was the walled garden. It looks as though the building was developed in three sections, first the tower house, then the villa and finally a Tudor-Gothic expansion. In Samuel Lewis’s Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, he writes of Monasterboice House that ‘a spacious mansion is now being erected by the proprietor.’ Lewis’ work came out in 1837, just as compensation was being paid to former plantation owners, such as William Drummond Delap/Dunlop. A suspicion forms that the money he then received was used to improve his country residence. Future generations did not enjoy it for long: his son and heir Robert Foster Dunlop married a cousin, the Hon Anna Skeffington but the couple had no son and their daughters do not seem to have occupied the place. At the start of the last century, the estate built up by William Drummond Delap was divided up and while the Louth Archaeological and History Society Journal reported in 1945 that the house was ‘in a fair state of preservation’ that is certainly no longer the case.

10 comments on “Dirty Money

  1. Gareth McMahon says:

    Interesting. It looks like it was simply locked up and abandoned,from the photos it doesn’t appear to have been stripped out. The Buildings of Ireland website has very little info on it either.

  2. Martin Grennan says:

    It’s owned by the Darling Family

  3. cuffesboro says:

    I had tea there with Harold Darling in the late 1970s. At that stage he was very elderly and had moved into the drawing room, which had a gas cooker, a sink, and two beds, one for his helper who had previously been his farm manager. Beyond the drawing room general dereliction had already set in. The 1860s Mrs Dunlop was a daughter of the Skeffingtons from Antrim Castle, another lost house, and their daughter married the Arctic explorer Leopold McClintock.

    • The 1860’s Mrs Delap/Dunlop was Hon. Anna Elizabeth Skeffington, 1817-1901. Her husband, Robert Foster Delap/Dunlop died in 1875.

      You are indeed right that ONE of their daughters, Annette Elizabeth, married Sir FL McClintock. I am one of their great granddaughters.

      Robert Foster Ddelap & Anna Elizabeth had 6 daughters and one son, Lt William James Skeffington, 1847-1871. He was killed in a railway accident on 28 Sept 1871 at Balbriggan. Having missed the last train, he decided to walk along the track. However, there was a storm that night, so he didn’t hear the milk train coming and was killed. If you’ve ever been to Balbriggan, Co. Dublin, you’ll know that the railway line goes right along the beach, so it’s easy to picture the scene.

  4. Martin Grennan says:

    Harold’s son Victor is supposablby now in a home. He is survived by his niece. This property has multiple gate houses which still exist as residence, major gates and numerous other hidden gems. An international business consortium is interested in working with the heritage society to breath life back into the estate and preserve Monasterboice House.

  5. James Canning says:

    Fascinating. On the subject of payment of compensation to slaveowners, we should remember that Abraham Lincoln proposed buying out the ownership interest in slaves in the US, saying it would be much less expensive than fighting a civil war.

  6. Hibernophile says:

    I can think of a number of Irish Estates that owe their continued survival to Caribbean & African interests. Today there are still a considerable number of Irish families who benefit financially from 18th century tea & coffee plantations. Thankfully the horrors of 17th & 18th century have been abolished, although the scars of plantation slavery & colonialism have never fully healed; ideas of white superiority have proved remarkably durable to the present day.

    The Irish Aesthete is correct in his assertion that relatively little is known publicly about the extent of Ireland’s association with a global slave trade, and I wish to thank him for pointing me to Ms Rodgers most instructive piece which enlightened me further on the subject.

    Although such a subject could make difficult reading, it would be interesting to learn more of the link between the plantation slaves and the Irish Country House. If I may be so bold to suggest, The Irish Aesthete would be very well placed to shine a light on this much overlooked aspect of the development of the ‘Big House’, and how such enterprises overseas manifested themselves in our built heritage.

  7. Congrats to The Irish Aesthete for the in-depth research! A very interesting and informative read.

  8. Many thanks for posting this, I’m a 3 x great grandaughter of William Drummond Delap, through the McClintock’s

  9. apt says:

    Victor sadly died earlier this year. There is a surviving niece, who is local. Hopefully there is a future for the house, which was bought by Victor’s father in the 1920s.

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